The Bible says that in the fullness of time, God sent His own Son, born of a woman, born under the Law. Jesus, the Son of God, was sent into the world, the world He himself created, at a certain point in time. A lot of people would ask why Jesus wasn’t sent earlier, maybe right after Adam and Eve sinned or after the Great Flood of Noah’s time. Others would ask why He wasn’t sent during our time today when there are thousands of people who refuse to believe in God and the Messiah or Christ.
Our Lord Jesus Christ was born during the time when Israel was under Roman sovereignty. Prior to that, the Jews enjoyed a brief period of independence from foreign rule due to the revolutionary efforts and leadership of Matathias and his son, Judas Maccabeus. This period in Israel’s history was known as the Maccabean period or the Maccabees. However, after the death of Judas Maccabeus, his descendants fought over the territories causing a weakening of Israel, precipitating the intervention of the Roman Empire.
Jesus often refers to the Kingdom of God whenever He teaches, especially in His parables. If Jesus came earlier the conditions would not yet be ripe for the people to understand His message about the Kingdom of God. Albeit there were already kingdoms existing later on and before the Roman Empire, such models were still insufficient for the purposes of God. The Kingdom of God is like a mustard seed, leaven, etc. These illustrations show that the Kingdom of God is something that starts small and then spreads to other nations and kingdoms, just like the expanding Roman Empire, which started out as a republic.
In addition to this, the paved and well-guarded roads built by the Romans greatly aided in the spread of the Gospel of Jesus Christ, which was not even due to intentional missionary activity but to commercial trade where Christians were involved, especially after the dispersion due to Emperor Diocletian’s persecution of the same. Jesus commissioned His disciples to go and make disciples of all nation, to baptize them in the name of the Triune God and teach them everything He had commanded them (Matthew 28:19-20). Unlike the Jews who were inwardly focused and tended to see themselves as God’s special people to the exclusion of others, the Christians went around sharing the Gospel of Jesus Christ not only to Jews but also to the Gentiles.