Prophets of the Eighth Century

I have read pages 303 to 337 of Reading the Old Testament by Rev. Fr. Lawrence Boadt, CSP. Boadt discussed the rise of prophecy during the exilic period of Israel’s history. These prophets such as Amos, Hosea and Isaiah, were known by the Jews as the “Latter Prophets”. He notes that Amos marks a turning point in our understanding of prophecy since up to that time; our knowledge of prophecy depends on stories about the prophets, from Samuel and Nathan to Elijah and Elisha. From Amos on, we can study and examine their actual words. The author also significantly notes the similarity of the Jewish prophetic wordings to those used by the pagan prophets, also called “diviners” or “oracles”, of the Assyrian and Babylonian kingdoms.

Amos’ basic message stresses God’s moral rule over the entire world and the divine demands for justice and concern for the outcast and oppressed; and yet, since God has specially chosen Israel and entered into a relationship of knowing and loving them, He holds the nation particularly responsible for a just and upright way of life.

As for Hosea, Fr. Lawrence divides the book into three sections: (a) Chapters 1-3 describe in different ways the broken marriage between God and His people and serve as a kind of preface to the rest of the book; (b) chapters 4-13 gather the actual oracles delivered by Hosea throughout his ministry; and (c) chapter 14 stands as a closing vision of hope after judgment.

After discussing Isaiah’s prophecy, the author took up Micah of Moresheth who looked out at the same nation as Isaiah and saw the same injustices and evil everywhere. He divides the Book of Micah into four parts which alternate between judgment and hope, to wit: (a) 1:1-3:12 describe the oracles of judgment against both Samaria and Judah; (b) 4:1-5:15 records oracles of hope and restoration; (c) 6:1-7:7 is a legal trial against Israel for its sins; and (d) a vision of God’s victory over Israel’s enemies.

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